China culture exploring assistant
Do you know Bruce Lee, Jet Li or Jackie Chan, all famous Chinese film s
Tea culture is an important part of Chinese tradition. Alongside social development and progress, tea has not only played a role in driving the development of the economy, but has also remained a feature of people’s lives. Moreover, tea drinking has gradually developed into a resplendent tea culture and become a bright pearl in the social life of Chinese civilization.
The practice of tea culture can bring the spirit and wisdom of human beings to a higher orbit. Tea has an extremely close relationship to Chinese culture, and its study covers a wide field and has very rich content. It not only embodies the spirit of civilization, but also the spirit of ideological form. There can be no doubt that it has been beneficial in enhancing people''s social accomplishments and appreciation of art.
Green tea is light tasting and antioxidant rich.
White tea consists of young buds and is antioxidant rich.
Oolong tea tastes flowery and sweet. (It is also known as wulong tea).
Black tea is robust and helps circulation.
Pu-erh tea is complex and aids in weight loss.
Herbal Flower tea is caffeine free and calming.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Acupuncture-moxibustion therapy (zhen jiu liáo fa ) which mainly consists of both acupuncture (zhen jiu ) and moxibustion (ài jiu ) is an unique approach to medical care in China and is also an indispensable component of Chinese medicine (zhong yi ). The acupuncture treatment is the __insertion of different fine needles on the body''s surface according to a certain point (xué wèi ), to stimulate certain parts of the body and use various methods to evoke the channels (jing luò ) as well as the vital energy (qì ) of human body, in order to adjust physiological functioning of the body so to cure diseases. Moxibustion is the burning of moxa (ài ) on or near a person''s skin as a counterirritant. For a long time, acupuncture and moxibustion treatment are often combined together in clinical practice application, therefore we collectively referred to them as Acupuncture-moxibustion therapy.
Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese method of treating disease or relieving pain by _inserting one or more metal needles (zhen ) at a certain point or certain points of the human body. The earliest written record that is available about acupuncture is Yellow Emperor''s Classic of Internal Medicine (orYellow Emperor''s Inner Canon huáng dì nèi jing ), which suggests acupuncture originated in China and would explain why it is most commonly associated with traditional Chinese medicine.
Different from the cuisine in western world, Chinese people cook food in various ways such as frying, boiling, steaming and stir frying. Chinese people put a high premium on the taste, color and smell of food. Chinese cuisine enjoys the same international reputation to that of France and Italy for its scent, taste and design.
Due to the vast territory of China, the product, climate and living habits are quite different from region to region. And the flavor of food is different. People in south China prefers light food while the people in north China prefer food with rich taste. Sichuan people like hot food, Shanxi people like sour food and so on. China has all kinds of cuisine of special local flavor, among which that of Shandong (shan dong ), Sichuan (sì chuan ), Jiangsu (jiang su ), Guangdong (guang dong ), Zhejiang (zhè jiang ), Fujian (fú jiàn ), Hunan (hú nán ) and Anhui (an hui ) are all quite representative.
Shandong cuisine (lu cài ) isvery famous in northern China. It includes much seafood. Sichuan cuisine (chuan cài ) is hot, spicy and sour. It is much due to the wet weather of that region and people need hot food to dispel the wet. Jiangsu cuisine (su cài ) is moderately salty and sweet and is quite delicious. It is much related to the mild weather in that region. Guangdong cuisine (yuè cài ) featers exquisite, plentiful and varied raw materials, novel and strangely cooked foods, light, delicious, tender and refreshing taste, sour, sweet, bitter, hot and salty flavoring. Zhejiang cuisine (zhè cài ) is developed from the local dishes of Hangzhou (hang zhou ), Ningbo (níng bo ) and Shaoxing (shào xing ). Food in Zhenjiang is fragrant, tender and fresh. And most of them are highly sophisticated made. Fujian cuisine (min cài ) often takes marine products as its raw material. It tastes light and delicious and the color is beautiful. Hunan cuisine (xiang cài ) is mostly seasoned with chili, and features sour, hot, delicious and fragrant tastes. Anhui cuisine (hui cài ) is made of the choicest delicacies of mountain and wilderness, and always keeps the original flavor of food.
Besides, roast duck (kao ya ) and dip-boiled mutton slices (shuàn yang ròu ) of Beijing, doupi (dòu pí ) (a kind of fried pancake made of glutinous rice, minced meat, cubes of bamboo shoots, etc. wrapped in sheets of rice and bean flour mixed with eggs) of Hubei Province (hú bei sheng ), and "white meat with pickled Chinese cabbage (suan cài bái ròu ) of the Northeast are all famous dishes in terms of their bright color and good taste.
Buddhism in China
Buddhism (fó jiào ) is the most important religion in China. Buddhism was introduced from India into China in 6th Century AD. One of the Hen Emperors sent a mission to the west of China and brought back the scriptures (jing wén ), Indian monks and the images of Buddha. Since then Chinese translation was made available and the further exchange of scholars among China, India and other Asian countries brought about the rapid development of Buddhism in China.
Buddhist monasteries (xiu dào yuàn) and temples were built to promote the Buddhism and some of the Emperors were also the followers of Buddhism. Buddhism, just like Confucianism (rú jiào ) and Taoism (dào jiào ), guides people to behave, to be honest and responsible. It promotes harmony and peaceful mind, sharing and compassion.
Buddhists never force people into their belief. Buddhism emphasizes in "awakening of mind". Through learning, one will develop intellectual capacity to the fullest so as to understand, to love and be kind to other beings.
Buddhism does not believe in God. It believes in People. In Buddhist teaching, there is no aggressive promotion of Buddhism or strong rejection of other religions.
All these make Buddhism fall into the same scope of Confucianism and Taoist. Its ability to co-exist with any other religions makes it being developed into one of the largest religions in China.
The basic Buddhist concepts base on Four Noble Truths:
-Life is suffering mentally and physically in the forms of sickness, injuries, aging, death, tiredness, anger, loneliness, frustration, fear and anxiety, etc.
-All these suffering are caused by craving (yù wàng ??). A self-centered person with continuous wanting from others will cause mental unhappiness. In turn, it will cause physical exhaust and fatigue in life.
-All sufferings can be overcome and avoided. When one gives up endless wanting and endures problems that life evolves without fear, hatred and anger, happiness and freedom will then be obtained. Overcome the mentality of self-center and selfishness, one will then spend time in meeting others needs and feels life more fulfilled.
-There is a Noble Eigthfold path leading to overcome the suffering. The Eightfold path (ba shèng dào) includes Perfect Understanding, Perfect Thought, Perfect Speech, Perfect Action, Perfect Livelihood, Perfect Effort, Perfect Mindfulness and Perfect Concentration. Buddhist practice the above in developing spiritually into a perfect person. This is said to lead one into the ultimate happiness in life and even afterlife.
Buddhism also promotes code of conduct in life. That is what they call Five Precepts of avoiding killing, stealing, indulging, lying and alcohol drinking. Buddhist teaching introduces the way and concepts of meditation (míng xiang ), rebirth, intellectual development and comparisons. It leads to self-understanding, instead of blind believing.
Modern Chinese Buddhism
Jing''an Temple (jìng an sì ) in downtown Shanghai. Recently rebuilt, it was established in the Three Kingdoms era.Today the most popular form of Buddhism in both mainland China and Taiwan is a mix of the Pure Land and Chán schools. More recent surveys put the total number of Chinese Buddhists between 660 million (50%) and over 1 billion (80%), thus making China the country with the most Buddhist adherents in the world, followed by Japan.
However, it was difficult to estimate accurately the number of Buddhists because they did not have congregational memberships and often did not participate in public ceremonies. Many lay people practice Buddhism and Taoism at the same time.
--content cited from foreignercn